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    Promoting Transformative Learning Using Critical Pedagogy and Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance
    (Peter Lang, 2022-08-11) Donaldson, Sara; Yuhaniak, Heather; Borkoski, Carey; Abel, Yolanda
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    Multiwavelength Observations Reveal a Faint Candidate Black Hole X-Ray Binary in IGR J17285−2922.
    (Oxford University Press, 2021-07-24) Stoop, M.; van den Eijnden, J.; N. Degenaar; Bahramian, A.; Swihart, S. J.; Strader, J.; Jimenez-Ibarra, F.; Munoz-Darias, T.; M. Armas Padilla. M.; Shaw, A. W.; Maccarone, T.J.; Wijnands, R.; Russell, T. D.; Hernandez Santisteban, J. V.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Russell, D. M.; Maitra, D.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Lewis, F.; Bramich, D. M.
    IGR J17285−2922 is a known X-ray binary with a low peak 2–10 keV X-ray luminosity of ∼ 1036 erg s−1 during outburst. IGR J17285−2922 exhibited two outbursts in 2003 and 2010 and went into outburst again in 2019. We have monitored this ∼ 4-month long 2019 outburst with Swift in X-ray and the Very Large Array in radio. We have also obtained four optical spectra with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, three optical photometry measurements with the Las Cumbres Observatory, and one near-infrared spectrum with the Gemini South telescope. The ratio between its X-ray and radio luminosity is consistent with both samples of neutron star and black hole (BH) X-ray binaries, while the ratio between the X-ray and optical luminosity is consistent with BH X-ray binaries. Studying the evolution of its X-ray power-law index throughout the outburst, we find additional evidence for a BH as compact object. The four optical spectra show no H α emission and the nIR spectrum shows no Brγ emission, suggesting that the donor star could be hydrogen-poor and hence that IGR J17285−2922 might have an ultracompact binary orbit. The shape of the X-ray light curve is well described by an exponential, followed by a linear decay, from which we obtain a relation between the orbital period Porb and the binary mass ratio. We discuss how this relation is consistent with theoretical predictions and known ultracompact X-ray binaries. Lastly, we discuss how the observed properties are reminiscent of short-Porb BH X-ray binaries.
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    Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Motivational Interviewing for Use in Rural Nepal.
    (BMC Psychology, 2021-04-01) Rimal, Pragya; Khadka, Sonu; Bogati, Bhawna; Chaudhury, Jamuna; Kumari Rawat, Laxmi; Chhaya Bhat, Kumari; Manandhar, Pramita; Citrin, David; Maru, Duncan; Ekstrand, Maria L.; Bahadur Swar, Sikhar; Aryal, Anu; Kohrt, Brandon; Shrestha, Srijana; Acharya, Bibhav
    Background: Motivational Interviewing (MI) has a robust evidence base in facilitating behavior change for several health conditions. MI focuses on the individual and assumes patient autonomy. Cross-cultural adaptation can face several challenges in settings where individualism and autonomy may not be as prominent. Sociocultural factors such as gender, class, caste hinder individual decision-making. Key informant perspectives are an essential aspect of crosscultural adaptation of new interventions. Here, we share our experience of translating and adapting MI concepts to the local language and culture in rural Nepal, where families and communities play a central role in infuencing a person’s behaviors. // Methods: We developed, translated, feld-tested, and adapted a Nepali MI training module with key informants to generate insights on adapting MI for the frst time in this cultural setting. Key informants were fve Nepali nurses who supervise community health workers. We used structured observation notes to describe challenges and experiences in cross-cultural adaptation. We conducted this study as part of a larger study on using MI to improve adherence to HIV treatment. // Results: Participants viewed MI as an efective intervention with the potential to assist patients poorly engaged in care. Regarding patient autonomy, they initially shared examples of family members unsuccessfully dictating patient behavior change. These discussions led to consensus that every time the family members restrict patient’s autonomy, the patient complies temporarily but then resumes their unhealthy behavior. In addition, participants highlighted that even when a patient is motivated to change (e.g., return for follow-up), their family members may not “allow” it. Discussion led to suggestions that health workers may need to conduct MI separately with patients and family members to understand everyone’s motivations and align those with the patient’s needs. // Conclusions: MI carries several cultural assumptions, particularly around individual freedom and autonomy. MI adaptation thus faces challenges in cultures where such assumptions may not hold. However, cross-cultural adaptation with key informant perspectives can lead to creative strategies that recognize both the patient’s autonomy and their role as a member of a complex social fabric to facilitate behavior change. // Keywords: LMICs, Motivational Interviewing, Nepal, Cultural adaptation, Global Mental Health
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    Successful Management of Invasive Rats across a Fragmented Landscape.
    (Environmental Conservation, 2021-05-16) Barney, Sarah K; Leopold, Devin R; Francisco, Kainana; Flaspohler, David J; Fukami, Tadashi; Giardina, Christian P; Gruner, Daniel S; Knowlton, Jessie L; Pitt , William C; Wilson Rankin, Erin E
    Introduced mammalian predators are responsible for the decline and extinction of many native species, with rats (genus Rattus) being among the most widespread and damaging invaders worldwide. In a naturally fragmented landscape, we demonstrate the multi-year effectiveness of snap traps in the removal of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans from lava-surrounded forest fragments ranging in size from <0.1 to >10 ha. Relative to other studies, we observed low levels of fragment recolonization. Larger rats were the first to be trapped, with the average size of trapped rats decreasing over time. Rat removal led to distinct shifts in the foraging height and location of mongooses and mice, emphasizing the need to focus control efforts on multiple invasive species at once. Furthermore, because of a specially designed trap casing, we observed low non-target capture rates, suggesting that on Hawai‘i and similar islands lacking native rodents the risk of killing non-target species in snap traps may be lower than the application of rodenticides, which have the potential to contaminate food webs. These efforts demonstrate that targeted snap-trapping is an effective removal method for invasive rats in fragmented habitats and that, where used, monitoring of recolonization should be included as part of a comprehensive biodiversity management strategy.
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    A new radio census of neutron star X-ray binaries
    (Oxford University Press, 2021-07-21) van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Wijnands, R.; Bahramian, A.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Hernandez Santisteban, J. V.; Gallo, E.; Atri, P.; Plotkin, R. M.; Maccarone, T. J.; Sivakoff, G.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Russell, D. M.; Maitra, D.; Heinke, C. O.; Armas Padilla, M.; Shaw, A. W.
    We report new radio observations of a sample of 36 neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries, more than doubling the sample in the literature observed at current-day sensitivities. These sources include 13 weakly magnetized (B < 1010 G) and 23 strongly magnetized (B ≥ 1010 G) NSs. 16 of the latter category reside in high-mass X-ray binaries, of which only two systems were radio-detected previously. We detect four weakly and nine strongly magnetized NSs; the latter are systematically radio fainter than the former and do not exceed LR ≈ 3 × 1028 erg s−1. In turn, we confirm the earlier finding that the weakly magnetized NSs are typically radio fainter than accreting stellar-mass black holes. While an unambiguous identification of the origin of radio emission in high-mass X-ray binaries is challenging, we find that in all but two detected sources (Vela X-1 and 4U 1700-37) the radio emission appears more likely attributable to a jet than the donor star wind. The strongly magnetized NS sample does not reveal a global correlation between X-ray and radio luminosity, which may be a result of sensitivity limits. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of NS spin and magnetic field on radio luminosity and jet power in our sample. No current model can account for all observed properties, necessitating the development and refinement of NS jet models to include magnetic field strengths up to 1013 G. Finally, we discuss jet quenching in soft states of NS low-mass X-ray binaries, the radio non-detections of all observed very-faint X-ray binaries in our sample, and future radio campaigns of accreting NSs.